(29)一生的经历-A Lifetime of Experience-公开课-关爱惟士
(29)一生的经历-A Lifetime of Experience

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM4NDA5Mg



Associate Professor Michael Valenzuela


Cognitive lifestyle is a concept that I’ve been interested in for a while now, which is really trying to think about the patterns of usage of your brain over your whole lifespan. What do you typically do with your brain? Are you someone who is always trying to find new information, learn new things, or are you quite happy not to learn new things, and just stay with the status quo? So I guess that’s the general concept, and we’ve done quite a bit of work trying to - being able to measure cognitive lifestyle in a more formal way.

现在我感兴趣的事情是认知生活方式,它是指你一生中使用大脑的方式。你通常如何对待你的大脑,你是个总想发现新信息,学习新事物的人吗?或者是个乐于不学习新事物,仅维持现状的人? 所以我猜这是广义概念,我们已经做了很多工作去试图能够以更正式的方式来测量认知方式。


Cognitive lifestyle, more and more research is showing, has a link to dementia risk in a similar way to when we’ve been considering social activity. People with, what I call, a poor or an unstimulated cognitive lifestyle, have high risk for dementia, and those individuals who have a very rich cognitive lifestyle, have a lower risk for dementia. Some years ago now, when we put this research together, we found that people with a very active or enriched cognitive lifestyle were about half the risk of dementia compared to an unenriched or low cognitive lifestyle. So that’s quite a big difference. And that’s true now, I’ve been shown in dozens of population health studies from around the world.

越来越多的研究表明,认知生活方式与认知症风险的联系类似于我们已经考虑过的社会活动。具有较差和不刺激的认识方式的个人具有高风险,而具有丰富认知生活方式的个人有较低的患认知症的风险。几年前的现在,当我们把这一研究放在一起时,我们发现具有活跃或丰富认知方式的人患认知症的风险只有不丰富或低认知生活方式的人的一半。所以这有很大的不同。而且现在确实如此。我已经展示了很多全世界的人群健康研究。


So when we talk about cognitive lifestyle, we talk about the lifespan. So some of that gets set up in young adulthood, particularly through education. Then, in the mid-life years, a lot of our cognitive lifestyle is related to the type of occupation we may be involved with, and then, in later life, particularly after retirement, it’s about those voluntary activities, where we’re getting out there and learning new things, meeting new people, and just doing things for interest that work our brain. So it depends what phase of life we’re talking about. If we’re talking about later life, then it’s really about the frequency of learning new material that challenges your mind, and also how challenging that is. Whether it’s just doing a crossword, which may be minimal, to learning a new language, which could be quite challenging.

所以当我们谈到认知生活方式时,我们要提到寿命。有些认知方式在成人之后特别是通过教育确立的。然后在中年,我们的认知生活方式和从事的职业有关。到了老年,特别是退休以后,这包括一些志愿活动,从中学习新事物,结交新朋友,或做一些有趣动脑的事情。所以这取决于我们谈论的是生命的哪个阶段。当我们谈论的是老年期的认知生活方式时,主要是指学习新材料挑战自己的频率,另外还有挑战的难度如何,是否只做了填字游戏这样的小挑战,还是学习一种新语言这样的大挑战。


The kind of research linking cognitive lifestyle to dementia breaks down in a few different ways. There’s been a lot of work in population health or the public health area, where you’re tracking, say, thousands of people for a number of years, and seeing who does develop dementia versus who doesn’t, and trying to work out what may be a risk factor or a protective factor. Time and again, it’s been shown that a more rich cognitive lifestyle is linked to lower dementia risk. More lately, my group and others have become quite interested in the idea of, well, if you’re presented with someone, an older person for example, what they’ve done early in life that’s fixed, what can they do going forward to enrich their cognitive lifestyle? And we’ve become very interested in brain training, or using cognitive exercises on the computer, as a kind of very formalised and encapsulated way of stimulating a cognitive lifestyle. So thinking of the brain like a muscle, brain training is like going to the gym and doing exercises for the brain.

将认知方式和认知症关联的这类研究可以以几种不同的方式分解。有很多人口健康和公共卫生领域的工作,在数年间随访了数千人,观察谁得了认知症,谁没得认知症,试图搞清什么是风险因素或保护因素。屡次表明认知方式越丰富,患认知症的风险越低。我的组和其他人对这一想法很感兴趣。如果某人呈现在你面前,例如一位老人,他们在生命早期的所做所为已经固定了,他们能做些什么来丰富他们的认知方式?并且我们对大脑训练或在电脑上使用认知练习,这类十分促进认知方式的非常正式化和概括性的手段感兴趣。所以训练大脑就像去健身房和进行体育锻炼来训练肌肉一样。


We can’t get too prescriptive about what type of cognitive lifestyle is best for an individual, because there’ll always be a wide diversity of things. We may recommend one thing but, if the person doesn’t enjoy it, they won’t be able to sustain it for the rest of their life. So I think it really comes down to personal choice. Some people may be more attracted to kind of complex lifestyle activities. For example, like dancing, which may have a cognitive component, a physical component and a social component, and so that’s a kind of holistic cognitive lifestyle intervention. On the other hand, cognitive or brain training is quite specific, and is really trying to target specific cognitive skills in a repetitive way. I don’t think there’s any particular magic cognitive lifestyle activity to recommend. Rather, we have to do a lot of research and try and work out what are the strengths and weaknesses of all of those.

我们无法规定哪种类型的认知方式对一个人最好,因为这总是有多种类型的。但我们或许可以建议的是如果一个人对它不感兴趣,他就无法在以后的生命中坚持下来,所以我觉得这真的取决于个人的选择。有些人或许喜爱复杂的认知方式,例如跳舞具有认知成分,运动成分和社会成分,所以这是一类整体认知方式的介入。在另一方面,认知或大脑训练师很特殊,这确实是以重复的方式试图针对特定的认知技巧。我不认为有任何神奇的特殊的认知方式。甚至我们不得不做很多研究试图搞清所有这些认知方式的优缺点。


We developed a “lifetime of experiences” questionnaire because, at the time, there wasn’t really a good tool or assessment option to try and quantify someone’s cognitive lifestyle, whether they had a kind of impoverished or low cognitive lifestyle, intermediate, or quite enriched or high cognitive lifestyle. We developed this questionnaire which is intended to be filled out or carried out by an older person after retirement. Part of it we’re talking about, or asking them to reflect on what they did in the past as a young adult, in terms of education, during their working life, all the different occupations they participated in, and then there’s a very large section of the lifetime of experiences questionnaire where we try and really work out - what is the person doing now to stimulate the brain? What kind of activities are they participating in, how diverse they are, and how challenging they are. At the end of the day, we’re trying to put a number on cognitive lifestyle and then, through large studies, being able to determine a kind of bell curve for cognitive lifestyle, so that we could give someone like a percentile on this assessment tool.

我们开发了一个名叫“一生的经历”的问卷调查,因为当时没有一个真正好的工具或评估选择来试图量化某个人的认知方式,从而确定他们是否有较差的认知方式,中等的认知方式,非常丰富的或较高的认知方式。 我们开发这个问卷调查目的是想让老人退休后填写。我们所讨论的部分,或让他们反映他们年轻时受过什么教育,工作后从事过什么不同的职业,我们通过“一生的经历”问卷调查很大部分是试图弄清一个人现在做的事情是如何激励大脑?他们参与的各种活动种类是如何多样,具有多大的挑战性。在一天的调查结束时,我们试图给一个认知生活方式打分,然后,通过大型研究,能够确定认知生活方式的一种贝尔曲线,以便我们可以给某人一个在这一评价工具上的百分位数。


So the lifetime of experiences questionnaire is broken up into phases of life. So we have early or young adulthood, where most of the questions are about education. How far did they get through the educational system? Then there’s mid-life, where a lot of the questions are about the different occupations they participated in. Not just the titles or the status, but also how many people were they in charge of? - what we call managerial experience. And then, for late life, which is I guess right now, what is the person doing with their brain now? What numbers of activities, diversity of activities, and how challenging those are.

所以我们可以将经验问卷的生命周期分成几个生命阶段。因此我们有早期或年轻的成年期,其中大部分问题是关于教育。他们通过教育系统有多远?然后有中年的生活,很多问题是关于他们从事的不同职业,不只是头衔或地位,还有他们负责多少人? - 我们称之为管理经验。然后,对于晚年生活,这是我现在猜想,现在的人在做什么与他们的大脑有关的活动?什么数量的活动,活动的多样性如何,以及这些活动具有多大的挑战性。


In terms of which activities may be more important for lowering your risk for dementia, using our lifetime of experiences questionnaire, we don’t have that information yet, but I think that will be coming in the future, because, to answer that question, you really need data from thousands of individuals, tracked for many years, in order to know which activities specifically are protective or increase your risk for dementia. So we’re doing that right now in terms of pooling data from Australia, from France, from the UK, from the USA, so we have, at the end of the day, a really large sample and can drill down to specific activities. So it’s a great question, but we just don’t know the answer just yet.

通过使用我们的一生的经历这一调查问卷,我们还没有获得关于哪些活动对于降低痴呆风险可能更加重要这类信息,但我认为我们以后会知道的,因为,为了回答这个问题,你真地需要随访多年的成千上万个人的数据,以便知道哪些活动具体是特别有保护性或增加痴呆的风险。因此,我们现在正在汇集来自澳大利亚,法国,英国和美国的数据,以便我们在一天结束时有一个非常大的样本,可以深入到具体的活动。所以这是一个很好的问题,只是我们还不知道答案。


Is it ever too late to start engaging in activities and thinking about your brain as a muscle? I don’t think so. I think more and more evidence, particularly clinical trials evidence, is showing that starting new challenging activities for your mind, such as brain training or complex leisure activities, is linked to better brain health, better cognitive outcomes. Whether that actually leads to lowering the incidence of dementia or the development of dementia, that’s still an open question, but we do know that it improves cognitive function and, in some cases, leads to better brain outcomes. So I think it’s never too late to think of your brain as a muscle and start new exercises for it.

现在才开始从事活动和考虑把你的大脑作为一个肌肉进行锻炼,是否为时已晚?我不这样认为。我认为越来越多的证据,特别是临床试验证据,表明开始新的具有挑战性的活动,如脑部训练或复杂的休闲活动,与更好的大脑健康,更好的认知结果相关联。无论是否实际上导致降低痴呆的发病率或痴呆的发展,这仍然是一个开放性的问题,但我们知道,它能提高认知功能,并在某些情况下,导致更好的大脑结果。所以我认为,把你的大脑当成肌肉开始新的锻炼从来不是太晚。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任


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