(24)模快3---社会参与-Social Engagement-公开课-关爱惟士
(24)模快3---社会参与-Social Engagement

课程视频http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM3MjMyNA



Associate Professor Michael Valenzuela

Michael Valenzuela副教授


When researchers talk about social engagement, they’re really talking about getting out of the house, and trying to measure that, getting out of the house to meet either your friends, family or new people. There are different ways technically to measure that. Sometimes it’s literally, “How often are you meeting or getting together with a friend or a family member?” You can get a little bit more complicated and actually try and map out people’s social networks, but the general idea is meeting people that you either know or new people, and outside of the house.

当研究人员谈论社会参与时,他们的确在谈论走出家门,并试图衡量它,离开房子,去见你的亲朋好友或结交新朋友。在技术上有不同的方法来衡量这个。有时它的字面意思是,“你多久出门会见朋友或家人或与之聚会?”你可以得到一个更复杂,实际上尝试和勾画出人们的社交网络,但一般是指出去会见你认识的人或结交新朋友。


There’s now quite a lot, dozens, of population-based studies or public health studies, which really means you’ve got a large group of people who’ve been followed for a number of years, and that kind of research shows, time and again, that those who are more socially active have a lower risk of dementia. Or the inverse, if you’re socially isolated, then you have a higher risk for dementia. So, from that population-based research, I think there’s quite a lot of evidence for that. It becomes a little bit more difficult when we try and translate that to the clinical trials or interventions context, but I think the main message there is that social activity, social engagement, is a risk or a protective factor for dementia. I think that evidence is pretty strong. Moving from there, it gets quite complicated.

现在有相当多的,几十个基于人群的研究或公共卫生研究,这真的意味着你有一大群已经随访了很多年的人,而且这类研究表明那些更积极社会活动的人具有较低的痴呆风险。或者反之,如果你是孤立于社会的,那么你有更高的痴呆风险。所以,我想有相当多的证据基于那些人群的研究。当我们尝试并将其转化为临床试验或干预情况时,这会更加困难,但我认为最主要的信息是社交活动或社会参与是痴呆的风险或保护因素,相关的这些证据相当有力。离开这些证据就会变得相当复杂。


Why social engagement should be related to dementia risk is a really tricky question to answer. We’ve got lots of theories. If you just think about it in first principles, socialising with other people demands a lot of your brain. You need to work memory; a nice social interaction means, if you’ve met the person before, you remember something about them that you can incorporate in your conversation. You’ve got to plan ahead. You have to follow the niceties of social conventions, sometimes called EQ or emotional intelligence. It requires quite a lot of mental work. So the connection could be through cognitive exercise or cognitive demands. The other side of the equation is social activity, for most people, there’s an inherent reward feedback system there. It’s a pleasurable act, to go out and socialise, so that leads to more sustainable behaviour. So, once you start socialising, you get in the habit, you enjoy it and you do it more and more in your life. So there could be an emotional or emotive side to that link. Whether there is an inherent value to social activity and dementia risk, independent of either cognitive activity or the reward feedback, we don’t really know.

为什么社交参与应该与痴呆风险相关是一个非常棘手的需要回答问题。我们已获得很多的理论。如果你只是考虑第一原则:与其他人社交需要大量使用你的大脑。你需要使用记忆力;一个良好的社交互动意味着,如果你曾经遇到过这些人,你会记住他们一些相关信息以便融入你的谈话。你必须提前做好计划。你必须遵循社会惯例的微妙,有时称为EQ或情商。它需要相当多的脑力劳动。因此,人际关系可以通过认知锻炼或认知需求。方程的另一边是社会活动,对于大多数人来说,这里有一个固有的奖励反馈系统。出去和社交是愉快的行为,以至于会导致更多的此类可持续的行为。所以,一旦你开始社交,你会养成习惯,你享受它,你会在你的生活中做得越来越多。所以,可能存在一个情感或情绪方面的链接。我们真的不知道是否存在社会活动和痴呆风险的内在价值,独立于认知活动或奖励反馈,


I guess on the negative side of social activity, if you’re withdrawn, you’re stuck in your house most of the time, not meeting your friends or family or not meeting new people, this is related to increased risk of dementia. And there are various sides to that observation. On the one hand, we do know that, in the years leading up to a dementia diagnosis, people start to withdraw somewhat from their social contacts, so it could actually be an early warning sign that maybe dementia is in the future for an individual. Or that person may be suffering from mental health problems, like depression, which means that you withdraw from your normal day-to-day activities and this leads to social withdrawal as well. So they could be two explanations for that observation, but I think there’s enough evidence from the public health literature, which tries to statistically adjust for those possible scenarios, and there is still a link between greater social activity being linked to reduced dementia risk. So I think there is some truth on both ends of the spectrum, that low social engagement is a risk factor for dementia, and high social engagement is a protective factor.

我猜想在社交活动的负面与痴呆的风险增加有关,如果你从社交活动中撤回,你大部分时间被困在家里,不去见你的朋友或家人或认识新的人。这一观察有各个方面。一方面,我们知道,在导致诊断出认知症的几年中,人们开始从他们的社交联系中退出,因此这实际上可能是个人会痴呆的一个预警信号。此人也可能患有精神健康问题,如抑郁症,这也导致退出社会,即意味着你退出正常的日常活动。因此它们可能是这个观察的两种解释,但我认为有足够的公共卫生文献证据,其试图用统计学方法调整这些可能的情况,并且更大的社会活动与减少的痴呆风险之间仍然有一个链接。因此,我认为在其两端都有一些事实,那就是社会参与度低是痴呆的一个风险因素,社会参与度高是一个保护因素。


Unfortunately, I don’t think we can quantify what is the perfect amount of social activity. Putting a lot of different streams of research together in my book, which is called “Maintain Your Brain,” I really recommend a common sense approach to it, which is that, particularly after retirement, because a lot of things change in retirement - one of the more stark things is that people go from a social network at work to often having a much more restricted social network, so I think it’s really important after retirement that people try and replace that social engagement. And what that means, I think, in terms of recommendations, is that people should try and start some new pastime or hobby, or join some kind of interest group out there, which means they’ve got to leave the home, they’re meeting new people. Ideally it’s ticking off what I call the three keys: that it entails or has cognitive activity, social activity and some physical activity. If you can try and start a new pastime that has those three key ingredients, I think you’re doing a good thing to lower your risk for dementia.

不幸的是,我不认为我们可以量化什么是完美的社会活动量。在我这本名为“保持你的大脑”的书里,我把大量不同的研究结果放在一起,从而推荐一种特别是在退休后使用的一种常识性的方法。因为在退休后许多事情发生改变 – 其中更严峻的事情是人们在工作中的社交网络经常有一个更受限制的社交网络,所以我认为在退休后,人们试着换一种社交参与方式是非常重要的。我认为应该建议人们开始尝试一些新的消遣或爱好,或加入在那里的某种兴趣小组,这意味着他们必须离开家,去认识新朋友。理想情况下,它敲出了我所说的三个键:它需要或具有认知活动,社交活动和一些体育活动。如果你可以尝试和开始一个有这三个关键因素的新的消遣活动,我认为你在做一件降低你患认知症的风险的好事情。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任

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