(19)体育锻炼是如何有利于大脑的?-How Does Physical Activity Benefit the Brain?-公开课-关爱惟士
(19)体育锻炼是如何有利于大脑的?-How Does Physical Activity Benefit the Brain?

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM2NDA3Mg




Professor Nicola Lautenschlager

Nicola Lautenschlager


As one can understand, since the research field is so young, there are lots of hypotheses and theories, but this is probably the area where we still have the biggest limit in terms of knowledge. However, there are quite a few interesting studies, sometimes using animal models, which investigate the question, “What mechanisms, physiologically, for example, do occur, so that the brain benefits directly from physical activity?” More recently, quite excitingly, there are now also study with human participants, investigating the biological background, so to speak, of this correlation. The easiest way, I think, to look at that is to look at two different groups of impact. One would be direct impact on the brain, and the other one would be indirect impact.

可以理解的是,这一研究领域太年轻,有很多假设和理论,但或许在这一领域我们有知识方面最大的局限。但是这一领域有很多有趣的研究,有时我们用动物模型来调查这个问题,例如“是什么生理机制使大脑直接从体育锻炼中获利?”最近,非常让人激动的是,现在也有人类参与者的研究来调查所谓的相关生物学背景。我认为最简单的方法是看看两类不同的影响,一个是对大脑的直接影响,而另一个是间接影响。


So let me start with the latter one. Indirect impact would be anything which benefits, for example, your cardiovascular health, like your blood pressure, your heart, your endocrinological system, your metabolism and therefore the brain benefits, secondary to that. Compared to direct impact, which would be increasing specifically the blood flow to the brain, and therefore assisting the brain with its performance in thinking, or even more excitingly, changing biomarkers, enzymes, hormones, directly in the brain. For example, research has shown that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF which we know is very important to help us to learn new things and remember things, can be triggered and activated with physical activity, and this has now also been shown in human trials. Then, obviously not to forget about psychological impact of physical activity. So we do know that most people who find the right type of physical activity do enjoy this greatly, especially older people. It gives them more confidence. Very often it’s a social activity where they meet other people, and therefore usually it has a very good impact on their mental health, and therefore that benefits the brain as well, for example, via reducing stress levels.

所以,让我从后者开始。间接影响是任何对大脑有好处的东西,例如你的心血管健康,像你的血压,你的心脏,你的内分泌系统,你的代谢。和直接影响相比,特异性增加流向大脑的血流量,从而帮助大脑进行思考,甚至更令人兴奋的是,直接在大脑中发生的生物标记,酶,激素的改变。例如研究表明脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)在帮助我们学习新事物和记忆起着重要作用,人类实验表明它可以被体育运动所激发和活化。然后,显然不要忘记体育锻炼的心理影响。我们知道找到正确运动方式的大多数人确实享受这个,特别是老年人。这给他们很多的信心。这往往是可以认识更多人的社会活动,因此通常对他们的精神健康有利,并且也对大脑有好处,例如通过降低压力水平。


If we look at that a bit closer, what biological changes physical activity can achieve in the brain, there are more recently some quite exciting findings in relation to, for example, pathological changes in the brain in association with Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia. For example, a study in healthy participants who had to do an aerobic exercise program for a year, could show with modern MRI technology that the volumes of certain areas of the brain, like the hippocampus, were actually growing after the 12 month exercise. Now that was a very unexpected finding, because usually our understanding is that the brain is not growing once you are older, and the study wasn’t designed so that the authors could answer the question why that would happen. But the growth in volume in the hippocampal area in the participants in the intervention correlated with higher levels of their BDNF. So the hypothesis the authors had was actually that the physical activity helped increase connections between the neurons, like creating additional synapses, which help with communication and therefore improve the memory, and that would have lead to the increase of volume.

如果我们看的更近些,最近有些关于体育锻炼可以完成大脑中的什么生物学变化的激动人心的发现。例如,和阿尔茨海默病或血管性痴呆症有关的大脑病理性变化。例如,在对完成一年有氧运动的健康参与者的进行的研究中,核磁共振技术发现参与者的像海马这样的大脑特定区域的体积在12个月的锻炼之后有所增加。这是一个非常出乎意料的发现,因为通常我们所知,你年老之后大脑不再生长了。而且这项研究没有被设计成作者能够解答这为何会发生的样子。但是,干预实验的参与者的海马区的体积增长与他们高水平的BDNF有关。所以,作者的假说是体育运动帮助增加神经元之间的联系,像增加额外的神经突触来帮助通讯从而改善记忆,这或许导致了海马区的体积增加。


Now that finding was in comparison to the control group, who not only did not have a growth of the volume but they had a loss of volume, in the same duration, which is what you really would expect in an older person.

目前这个发现与对照组形成鲜明对比。在同样的时间内,对照组的海马区的不仅没有体积增长,而且体积减少,这正是你通常预计的老年人的表现。


Other research has more closely looked at Alzheimer’s disease pathology and there are some early suggestions that physical activity might also be able to directly impact on the amount of amyloid, which is one of the typical deposits associated with Alzheimer’s disease, being present in the brain. So there has been research showing that regular physical activity programs can actually reduce the concentration of that pathological protein you measure in the brain. Why that is the case is not really clear. There are some theories that that might have to do with insulin, because insulin is connected with the deposition of amyloid and we do know, for example, that people with Type 2 Diabetes have a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease.

其他研究已经更仔细地观察了阿尔茨海默病的病理性表现,有些早期研究认为体育运动也许能直接影响大脑中与阿尔茨海默病相关的典型沉淀物淀粉样蛋白的含量。所以有研究表明,定期体育活动计划能切实降低你在脑中测得的病理性蛋白的浓度。我们还真不清楚为什么会这样的原因。有些理论认为这或许与胰岛素有关。因为胰岛素与淀粉样蛋白的沉积有关。例如,我们知道,二型糖尿病有较高的患阿尔茨海默病的风险。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任


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