(11)遗传和环境风险-Genetic and environmental risk-公开课-关爱惟士
(11)遗传和环境风险-Genetic and environmental risk

http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODMzMzA3Ng



Dr Blochs

Blochs博士


Hello. Today in the Wicking Dementia Laboratory we have 12 volunteers who are going to demonstrate the influence of modifiable factors on our risk of developing dementia. There are important non-modifiable risk factors for dementia; things we can’t change. We can’t stop growing older, which is the biggest risk factor for dementia. And we can’t change our family or our genes.

大家好。今天在Wicking认知症实验室,我们有12名志愿者将展示可修饰因素对我们发展认知症的风险的影响。有很多导致认知症的重要的不可修改的风险因素,这些是我们不能改变的。我们不能停止衰老,这是认知症最大的风险因素。另外我们不能改变我们的出身或我们的基因。


This is a group of 12 friends who have their own individual mix of genes inherited from their parents. Some of them will be at higher risk of developing dementia than others, because of their genes.

这组的12个朋友有自己特有的从他们的父母那里遗传的基因组合。他们的基因会使他们中的一些发生认知症的风险高于其他人。


We can’t actually measure anyone’s level of genetic risk because it’s complex and involves many different genes. But for the purposes of our demonstration, let’s line up our friends and assume this represents the order of their dementia risk according to the genetic make-up they were born with.

我们不能实际测量任何一个人的遗传风险水平,因为它是复杂的,并涉及许多不同的基因。但是为了方便我们的示范,让我们根据他们与生俱来的遗传修饰来假设这代表他们患认知症的风险高低,按照患病风险从高到低的顺序将我们的朋友排队。


Hypothetically, if genes were the only thing affecting their risk, let’s say 3 out of 4 people in the high risk group would get dementia. 2 out of 4 in the medium risk group would get dementia, and just 1 out of 4 in the low risk group would get dementia.

假设如果基因是他们患认知症风险的唯一的影响因素,那我们说,在高风险组中,每4个人中有3个会得认知症。在中等风险组中,每4个人中有2个会得认知症。而在低风险组中,只有四分之一的人会得到痴呆。


But genes are not the only factor that affects our risk. Now let’s look at some of the other factors that we know have an effect on our risk of developing dementia and see if anyone’s risk changes.

但是基因不是影响我们患病风险的唯一因素。现在让我们看看一些我们所知的对我们发展认知症的风险的其他影响因素,并看看是否有些人的风险会因此而改变。


Let’s start with Brenda, who hypothetically has the highest genetic risk. She eats a healthy diet including lots of vegetables and fruit and fish, which is most likely associated with a reduced risk of dementia, so she gets to move down the line, closer to a lower risk.

让我们从Brenda开始,假设她具有最高的遗传风险。她吃健康的食物,包括大量的蔬菜,水果和鱼,这很可能与痴呆风险降低相关,所以她向下移动到队列的后面,接近于低风险。


Chris uses aluminium pots and pans, but there is no evidence this affects dementia risk, so she stays where she is in the line.

克里斯喜欢使用铝锅和平底锅,但没有证据表明这影响痴呆的风险,所以她留在队列中她原来的位置。


Douglas does regular physical exercise, which is associated with a reduced risk of dementia, so he gets to move down the line, closer to a lower risk.

道格拉斯做常规体育锻炼,这与降低痴呆的风险相关,因此他向下移动到队列的后面,接近更低的风险。


Edmond smokes cigarettes, and we know smoking increases the risk of dementia, so he has a higher risk and unfortunately he moves up the line.

Edmond喜欢抽烟,我们知道吸烟会增加患认知症的风险,所以他有更高的风险,并且很不幸,他向上移动到队列的前面。


Fiona is 45 and has high blood pressure, but hasn’t had it checked or treated, and high blood pressure in midlife increases the risk of dementia, so she also moves up the line.

Fiona是45岁,有高血压,但没有检查或治疗过,高血压增加痴呆的风险,所以她也向上移动。



Gary has decided to eat coconut oil every day, but this hasn’t been proven to affect dementia risk, so he stays where he is.

加里已经决定每天吃椰子油,但这并没有被证明会影响患认知症的风险,所以他留在他原来的地方。


Heidi is learning a second language, and keeping your brain active is associated with lower dementia risk, so she gets to move down the line.

Heidi正在学习第二语言,因为保持大脑活跃与较低的患认知症的风险相关联,所以她向下移动。


Ivan meets regularly with his walking group and scrabble club. As social activity is associated with reduced dementia risk, he moves down the line.

Ivan定期与他的行走小组和拼字俱乐部成员会面。由于社会活动与减少的痴呆风险有关,他向下移动。


Joseph is 55 and very overweight, and we know that midlife obesity is associated with increased dementia risk, so he moves up the line toward higher risk.

约瑟55岁,体重超重,我们知道中年肥胖与患认知症的风险增加相关,因此他向上攀升到更高的风险。


Katie has diabetes and Luigi has depression. Both can be associated with increased dementia risk if poorly managed, so they move up the line toward higher risk.

Katie有糖尿病,Luigi有抑郁症。如果管理不善,两者都可能与增加的患认知症的风险相关,因此他们向上移动到具有更高风险的位置。


Mary has decided to take ginkgo biloba supplements, but there is no evidence they can reduce dementia risk, so she stays where she is.

玛丽决定服用银杏叶补充剂,但没有证据表明它们可以减少患认知症的风险,所以她留在她原来的地方。


Our friends have demonstrated how environmental and medical factors can modify our risk of dementia.

我们的朋友们已经展示了环境和医学因素可以如何改变我们患认知症的风险。


Douglas started in the high risk group, but thanks to regular physical activity, he moved to the medium risk group.

道格拉斯开始在高风险组,但由于定期体力活动,他移动到中等风险组。


Fiona, who has high blood pressure and doesn’t have regular check-ups to keep it controlled, started with a medium risk but moved into the high risk group.

Fiona,有高血压,他没有定期检查以保持控制,开始在中等风险组,但后来转移到高风险组。


Heidi and Ivan moved to the low risk group by keeping their brains active with mental and social activities.

Heidi和Ivan通过参与精神和社会活动来保持他们的大脑活跃性,从而转移到低风险组。


This shows the choices we make can influence our risk of dementia just as much as our genetics. Of course, it’s not as simple as our example here, because we each have many different lifestyle and health factors that might be increasing or decreasing our risk.

这表明我们做出的选择是可以影响我们患的认知症的风险,这和我们的遗传对我们的影响大小是一样。当然,这不像我们这里举的例子那么简单,因为我们每个人都有很多不同的生活方式和健康因素,这些都可能会增加或降低我们的风险。


The best any of us can do to reduce our risk of dementia is live a healthy and active life, and manage vascular risk factors and depression. This can’t guarantee we won’t get dementia, but we’d all prefer to be in the low risk group than the high risk group.

我们任何人都可以做的减少患认知症的风险的最好方法是过健康和积极的生活,管理血管风险因素和抑郁症。这不能保证我们不会得认知症,但我们所有的人都喜欢在低风险组而不是高风险组。


Thanks everyone. Who’s for some fun brain stimulation?

Let’s build something!

感谢大家。谁在为了大家提供一些有趣的东西来刺激大脑?

让我们建立一些什么!


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任

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