公开课-关爱惟士
公开课
(18)体育锻炼和认知健康-Physical Activity and Cognitive Health

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM2MzM4OA




Professor Nicola Lautenschlager

Nicola Lautenschlager教授


A definition of physical activity would be any use of your skeletal muscles which needs energy. Research into the link between physical activity and cognition, in later life, is actually quite a new field. So we really only have increasing evidence in the last 20 to 30 years. However, the evidence we have so far is very promising. There are observational and longitudinal studies which have shown for quite a while that people who adhere to physical activity throughout their lifetime have a lower risk of developing cognitive decline when they get older. And more recently, there has also been an increasing number of randomised control trials with either healthy individuals or people in the community who are at higher risk. Especially for the randomised control trials, the evidence is not consistent. So some of the trials were negative but many were also positive. There is a clear indication we need more research done in this field to understand it better.

体育运动的定义是任何使用你的肌肉消耗能量的活动。关于体育运动和认知之间关系的研究,实际上是一个非常新的领域。所以我们在过去二三十年间仅仅获得一些增加的证据。然而我们迄今获得的证据是非常有希望的。纵向研究和观察已经表明一生坚持体育锻炼的人,当他们变老时,他们拥有很低的认知下降的风险。最近,还有越来越多的用健康个体或在社区中处于较高风险的人做的随机对照试验。特别是这些随机对照试验的证据不一致。有些试验是阴性结果,但很多试验是阳性结果。这清楚的表明我们在这个领域需要做更多的研究,以便更好地了解它。


The positive studies have shown that regular physical activities are associated with improved cognitive performance. Interestingly, there seems to be evidence pointing towards not every type of cognitive performance benefiting in the same way. Currently, most positive studies show that the evidence is especially for executive function or frontal lobe functions, and anything having to do with speed, so for example, processing speed. Whereas for other cognitive areas such as memory, the findings are much more diverse and controversial.

阳性结果的研究表明经常性的体育锻炼与改善认知表现相关。有趣的是,似乎有证据指向并不是每项认知表现都以同一方式受益。目前,很多阳性结果的研究证据往往专门是关于执行功能或额叶功能,和任何与速度有关的功能,例如速度处理过程。而对于像记忆之类的其它认知领域,结果往往是多样和矛盾的。


The other interesting finding so far is that it is important to decide what type of physical activity or exercise is most beneficial when you want to maintain your cognitive health, and again the current evidence of the literature points towards aerobic exercise. Meaning it has to be a type of physical activity where there is enough expenditure of energy to have an increased heartbeat, have more intense breathing, basically an activity where the person can’t keep talking, for example, because they need their breath to do the exercise. To give you a practical idea, if you talk about walking which is the most commonly performed type of aerobic exercise, it has to be of a speed and intensity that is reached, that the person develops more laboured breathing and works up a sweat.

迄今为止,另一个有趣的发现是,当你想维持你的认知健康时,决定进行哪种类型的体育运动或锻炼是最有效的,是非常重要的。目前的文献资料证据再次指向有氧运动。这意味着是一种充分消耗能量,使心跳加快,呼吸增加的运动。例如,这种运动基本上是一种人们无法保持交谈的运动,因为人们需要呼吸来做运动。给你一个实际例子,如果你谈论走路的话,这是一种最常见的有氧运动,它需要达到一定的速度和强度,需要更多的呼吸和出汗。


It also has been shown more recently that strength training, so specific training where you use, for example, weights to strengthen your muscles, is also beneficial for cognition, and it looks like a combination of both, physical activity with aerobic focus plus strength training, is probably the best combination, rather than doing only one of these types. Where the evidence is more limited is for exercise which is rather focusing on balance or relaxation, like yoga. We know there are lots of benefits for older people, like the reduction of risk for falls and having a better balance, but whether these more low-impact exercises also can help to contribute to cognitive health is not quite clear.

另外,最近更多的研究表明你所使用的十分特殊的训练--力量训练, 例如,加强你肌肉的重量训练,对认知也有好处,它似乎是一种有氧运动和力量训练结合的体育锻炼,它或许是最好的组合,而不是仅做这些运动类型其中的一种。然而关于像瑜伽这类平衡和放松的运动有关的研究证据更加有限。我们知道此类运动对老人有很多好处,例如可以降低摔跤的风险和有更好的平衡能力,但我们尚不清楚这些低冲击运动是否也能帮助和有利于认知健康。


What is still unknown, and needs much more research in the future, is the question, “What is the right dose?” So how much physical activity do you have to do per week, at what level of intensity, to have the best benefits for your cognitive health? There seems to be emerging evidence that a combination of different types, as I mentioned, might be better than just doing one type, and there is also an emerging field which investigates whether combining physical activity with some cognitive tasks might have additional benefit. For example, it has been shown if you have a physical activity type, like dancing, where you also have to remember steps, or Tai Chi where you have to remember movements, this might give you additional benefit. Another area they’re investigating is what we call dual task exercise. That means someone is, for example, in the gym and does aerobic exercise and then in intervals between the physical activity, they try to do a cognitive task like solving a crossword puzzle or doing some arithmetic. So that’s also an interesting area of research.

究竟多大的运动量合适呢?即每周需要你做多少运动以及运动强度如何?这个尚未解决的问题需要将来做更多的研究。新出现的证据似乎表明不同类型的运动组合似乎比只做一种运动好。而且新出现的研究领域正在调查体育运动和认知任务相结合是否有更多的好处。例如有证据表明如果你有像跳舞这样的需要记住舞步的运动类型,或太极这样的需要记住动作的运动类型,你会受益更多。他们调查的另一个领域是我们所说的双重任务锻炼。例如有人先在健身馆进行有氧锻炼,然后在体育锻炼的空隙来完成像填字游戏和算数之类的认知任务。所以那也是一个有趣的研究领域。


Australia, like many other western countries, has official physical activity guidelines and we are also fortunate in our country that we have specific guidelines for older Australians. The recommendations for older people are actually very similar to the recommendations for younger people. So there is quite global agreement that the recommended physical activity level we all should try to adhere to is approximately 150 minutes per week. Now how these 150 minutes are spent across the week is very variable. The recommendation is that it shouldn’t be shorter than 10 minutes at a given time. Very often you read a recommendation that trying to do 30 minutes, most days of the week, is a good way to go about it. The recommendations further say the type of physical activity should be mainly moderate aerobic exercise. So that could be either fast walking, or it could be going into a gym program, or it could be bike riding, for example. So there are lots of options. It could be swimming. And then ideally that should be combined with, at least twice a week, some strength training, and obviously outside the benefit for cognition, some balance training to reduce the risk of falls in older people.

像很多其它西方国家,在澳大利亚有体育锻炼的官方指南,幸运的是我们有针对澳大利亚老年人的特殊指南。对老人的建议,实际上和对年轻人的建议相类似。所以全球性协议指南建议我们坚持每周150分钟的体育锻炼。现在如何在一周花150分钟是非常不同的。指南建议每次运动不要少于10分钟。最好方式是在每周的大多数日子,每天活动半小时。另外,指南还建议体育锻炼类型应该主要是中度有氧运动。所以这些运动可以是快走,某个健身项目,或像骑自行车运动。所以可以有很多选择,游泳也行。最理想的是与每周两次的对认知明显有好处的力量训练和降低老年人跌倒的风险的平衡训练相结合。


So the question, “[Does] it makes a difference if you have done lots of physical activity as a child or a younger person, in terms of the benefits to your cognitive health when you are older?” is a very interesting question. There are studies which have exactly shown that there is, sort of, a lifelong accumulation of your physical activity efforts throughout your lifespan, and the more you have done throughout your life, the better the chances that you have good cognitive health when you’re older. However, there is also research showing that it’s never too late to get started. Looking, for example, at older participants or people who never have done physical activity in their life, who have had a more or less sedentary life and then only started doing physical activity at an older age, even that group can experience some quite impressive benefit with regards to their cognitive health.

因此这个问题“你在小时候或年轻的时候进行了大量的体育活动是否会有利于你老年时的认知健康?”是一个非常有趣的问题。一些研究已经确切表明了你在一生中的体育锻炼的努力的积累,你在一生中做的越多,你在年老时就越可能有好的认知健康。但是也有研究表明何时开始都为时不晚。例如,从未参加过体育运动,或多或少的拥有久坐生活的老年参加者仅仅在较大的年纪开始做运动,就可以获得对他们认知健康的令人印象相当深刻的好处。


The largest amount of evidence in this field we do have for cognitively healthy people, when it comes, for example, to randomise control trials, there is a small but increasing number of studies which focused on people who already experience some cognitive impairment. A classic example would be studies with either older people who have subjective memory decline or, what we call, mild cognitive impairment. Both of these clinical groups have been identified as being at increased risk of later on developing some more pronounced cognitive decline, such as dementia. The study results are less clear in those clinical groups, compared to healthy participants, but there have been a number of trials now which have shown that, also in these clinical groups, there is benefit to cognitive performance, and a few of these studies even have shown that the right type of physical activity program might help to delay the progression of the cognitive impairment.

我们在这个领域中确实有最大量关于认知健康的人群的证据。但对于随机对照试验,有少量但数量在不断增长的的研究集中在已有认知缺陷的人群。一个经典的例子是关于主观记忆下降的老人或轻度认知障碍的老人的研究。这两个临床组的人以后发展为像痴呆症这样的显著的认知下降的风险都会增加。和健康的参与者相比,在这些临床组的研究结果不太清楚,但是目前一些试验表明即使在这些临床组中,正确类型的体育运动或许可以帮助延缓认知障碍的进程。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任

塔斯马尼亚大学预防认知症MOOC
2018-05-24
(19)体育锻炼是如何有利于大脑的?-How Does Physical Activity Benefit the Brain?

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM2NDA3Mg




Professor Nicola Lautenschlager

Nicola Lautenschlager


As one can understand, since the research field is so young, there are lots of hypotheses and theories, but this is probably the area where we still have the biggest limit in terms of knowledge. However, there are quite a few interesting studies, sometimes using animal models, which investigate the question, “What mechanisms, physiologically, for example, do occur, so that the brain benefits directly from physical activity?” More recently, quite excitingly, there are now also study with human participants, investigating the biological background, so to speak, of this correlation. The easiest way, I think, to look at that is to look at two different groups of impact. One would be direct impact on the brain, and the other one would be indirect impact.

可以理解的是,这一研究领域太年轻,有很多假设和理论,但或许在这一领域我们有知识方面最大的局限。但是这一领域有很多有趣的研究,有时我们用动物模型来调查这个问题,例如“是什么生理机制使大脑直接从体育锻炼中获利?”最近,非常让人激动的是,现在也有人类参与者的研究来调查所谓的相关生物学背景。我认为最简单的方法是看看两类不同的影响,一个是对大脑的直接影响,而另一个是间接影响。


So let me start with the latter one. Indirect impact would be anything which benefits, for example, your cardiovascular health, like your blood pressure, your heart, your endocrinological system, your metabolism and therefore the brain benefits, secondary to that. Compared to direct impact, which would be increasing specifically the blood flow to the brain, and therefore assisting the brain with its performance in thinking, or even more excitingly, changing biomarkers, enzymes, hormones, directly in the brain. For example, research has shown that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor or BDNF which we know is very important to help us to learn new things and remember things, can be triggered and activated with physical activity, and this has now also been shown in human trials. Then, obviously not to forget about psychological impact of physical activity. So we do know that most people who find the right type of physical activity do enjoy this greatly, especially older people. It gives them more confidence. Very often it’s a social activity where they meet other people, and therefore usually it has a very good impact on their mental health, and therefore that benefits the brain as well, for example, via reducing stress levels.

所以,让我从后者开始。间接影响是任何对大脑有好处的东西,例如你的心血管健康,像你的血压,你的心脏,你的内分泌系统,你的代谢。和直接影响相比,特异性增加流向大脑的血流量,从而帮助大脑进行思考,甚至更令人兴奋的是,直接在大脑中发生的生物标记,酶,激素的改变。例如研究表明脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)在帮助我们学习新事物和记忆起着重要作用,人类实验表明它可以被体育运动所激发和活化。然后,显然不要忘记体育锻炼的心理影响。我们知道找到正确运动方式的大多数人确实享受这个,特别是老年人。这给他们很多的信心。这往往是可以认识更多人的社会活动,因此通常对他们的精神健康有利,并且也对大脑有好处,例如通过降低压力水平。


If we look at that a bit closer, what biological changes physical activity can achieve in the brain, there are more recently some quite exciting findings in relation to, for example, pathological changes in the brain in association with Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia. For example, a study in healthy participants who had to do an aerobic exercise program for a year, could show with modern MRI technology that the volumes of certain areas of the brain, like the hippocampus, were actually growing after the 12 month exercise. Now that was a very unexpected finding, because usually our understanding is that the brain is not growing once you are older, and the study wasn’t designed so that the authors could answer the question why that would happen. But the growth in volume in the hippocampal area in the participants in the intervention correlated with higher levels of their BDNF. So the hypothesis the authors had was actually that the physical activity helped increase connections between the neurons, like creating additional synapses, which help with communication and therefore improve the memory, and that would have lead to the increase of volume.

如果我们看的更近些,最近有些关于体育锻炼可以完成大脑中的什么生物学变化的激动人心的发现。例如,和阿尔茨海默病或血管性痴呆症有关的大脑病理性变化。例如,在对完成一年有氧运动的健康参与者的进行的研究中,核磁共振技术发现参与者的像海马这样的大脑特定区域的体积在12个月的锻炼之后有所增加。这是一个非常出乎意料的发现,因为通常我们所知,你年老之后大脑不再生长了。而且这项研究没有被设计成作者能够解答这为何会发生的样子。但是,干预实验的参与者的海马区的体积增长与他们高水平的BDNF有关。所以,作者的假说是体育运动帮助增加神经元之间的联系,像增加额外的神经突触来帮助通讯从而改善记忆,这或许导致了海马区的体积增加。


Now that finding was in comparison to the control group, who not only did not have a growth of the volume but they had a loss of volume, in the same duration, which is what you really would expect in an older person.

目前这个发现与对照组形成鲜明对比。在同样的时间内,对照组的海马区的不仅没有体积增长,而且体积减少,这正是你通常预计的老年人的表现。


Other research has more closely looked at Alzheimer’s disease pathology and there are some early suggestions that physical activity might also be able to directly impact on the amount of amyloid, which is one of the typical deposits associated with Alzheimer’s disease, being present in the brain. So there has been research showing that regular physical activity programs can actually reduce the concentration of that pathological protein you measure in the brain. Why that is the case is not really clear. There are some theories that that might have to do with insulin, because insulin is connected with the deposition of amyloid and we do know, for example, that people with Type 2 Diabetes have a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease.

其他研究已经更仔细地观察了阿尔茨海默病的病理性表现,有些早期研究认为体育运动也许能直接影响大脑中与阿尔茨海默病相关的典型沉淀物淀粉样蛋白的含量。所以有研究表明,定期体育活动计划能切实降低你在脑中测得的病理性蛋白的浓度。我们还真不清楚为什么会这样的原因。有些理论认为这或许与胰岛素有关。因为胰岛素与淀粉样蛋白的沉积有关。例如,我们知道,二型糖尿病有较高的患阿尔茨海默病的风险。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任


塔斯马尼亚大学预防认知症MOOC
2018-05-24
(20)将体育活动的证据翻译给社区-Translating the Evidence into Physically Active Communities

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM2NDU3Ng




Professor Nicola Lautenschlager

Nicola Lautenschlager教授


It’s obviously one thing to conduct the initial research into finding more evidence to establish a clear link between physical activity and the benefits for cognitive health, but, in a sense, the bigger challenge for all of us as societies is how to best translate that knowledge back into our community, so that everybody living in a community, of no matter what age, can have access to programs or information which helps them to do the right physical activity, at the right time, and the right duration, so that they have the best possible outcome for their cognitive health when they are older. The challenge is that a society, as a whole, has to make a decision to invest funds into this area. We are basically talking about here dementia risk reduction activities, and to think about how programs could be made available to community members, which offer the right type of physical activity to help with cognitive health in the future. I think this is a particularly exciting time now, because we have finally accumulated enough evidence that really a first step is to give the knowledge, in obviously appropriate lay terms, to the community, so that the first step would be to increase their knowledge of dementia risk reduction. What we see in many countries now, especially the western countries including Australia, is increasing information via certain bodies, for example Alzheimer's Associations, making the case and providing the information why physical activity is linked to cognitive health. What we do not have yet, internationally, is specific physical activity guidelines with the aim of looking at cognitive health, going beyond the general physical activity guidelines. But there are promising movements now in some countries like the US, the United Kingdom and Canada, who actually are now trying to get all the main international researchers in this field together, to develop specific information, which then can be accessed by the communities in various countries.

进行初步研究从而发现更多的证据来建立体育运动和有利于认知健康之间的联系,是我们显而易见需要进行的一件事。但是在某种意义上,更大的挑战是我们社会如何翻译知识回馈社区,从而使生活在社区的每个人,无论什么年龄都能接触到信息和计划来帮助他们在合适的时间进行适当长度的正确类型的体育活动,从而当他们年老时能获得对他们的认知健康最好的效果。对于整个社会必须做出决定将资金投入这一领域,这是一个挑战。这里我们基本讨论的是关于降低患痴呆症风险的活动,考虑如何向社区成员提供计划,从而使他们能进行将来能有利于认知健康的正确类型的体育活动。我认为现在是一个特别激动人心的时刻,因为我们终于积累了足够的证据来把知识在明显适当的条件下给予社区,从而真正迈出了第一步。这第一步将增加他们关于如何降低患痴呆症的风险的知识。正如我们在很多国家所见,特别是在包括澳大利亚在内的西方国家,通过如阿尔茨海默病协会之类的特定机构提供为何体育运动与认知健康相关联的理由和相关信息,来增加信息量。在国际上我们还没有专门的为了认知健康进行体育锻炼的指南,而不是普通的体育锻炼的指南。但是一些像美国,英国和加拿大这些国家,他们已经切实开展有希望的行动来把这一领域的国际研究者聚集在一起,来开发专门的信息,从而能被不同国家的社区获得。


Obviously, when we think about physical activities, it’s not just thinking about what programs we could provide, let’s say in certain suburbs or Councils, but it is also about liveability in our cities and suburbs. Because lots of physical activity can be done by just increasing the activity level while you do your everyday jobs, like walking to the shops instead of taking the car, using stairs instead of taking the lift. One interesting area of research is looking at the walkability of suburbs, literally. So how good is the setup, especially for older people, to be able to be more physically active? Is it safe? Are the shops near enough? Are the pathways wide enough? And that obviously translates into other areas such as riding a bike, bicycle tracks and so forth. So this really moves then into planning policy of architecture and design, while cities like the main cities in Australia grow.

显而易见的是,当我们考虑体育锻炼时,不仅仅是考虑我们能为特定的郊区或市议会提供什么计划,而是提供适合我们所有的城市和郊区的运动计划。因为在你做日常工作时,仅仅通过增加运动强度就可以做很多体育锻炼。例如不开车走路去商店,爬楼梯而不坐电梯。一个有趣的研究领域是字面上讲,看郊区的步行的可能性。因此需要看市政建设设施如何?特别是对老年人,能否方便他们进行更多的体育运动?是否安全?附近有足够的商店吗?道路足够宽吗?像有自行车道方便骑车的人到其他地方吗?因此这的确涉及像澳大利亚主要城市的市政建设和规划问题。  


I think one point I want to mention which shows you how relatively straightforward the challenge is, is that many of the benefits of physical activity for cognitive health are exactly the same benefits as there are for heart health and for stroke prevention. We know that the recommendations, how to protect your heart from heart attacks, have been around much longer than advice on how to maintain your cognitive health. For example, one easy approach is to give all the necessary information to health clinicians, healthcare providers like general practitioners, to give them a second argument or another argument when they talk to their patients about how to protect their heart health, to say, “And it also helps you to reduce your risk of dementia”. We do know, from surveys of older Australians, that the fear of developing dementia is right in the top range of their health concerns they have for their age group. So it should be a very powerful argument. So looking at programs which could investigate how a general practice could prescribe targeted physical activity, as part of regular health check-ups for older people, would be a very strong way to go.

我认为我想提到的一点,就是向你表明挑战的相对直接性,就是很多体育锻炼对认识健康的益处恰恰是心脏健康对中风防治的好处。我们知道关于如何保护心脏防治心脏病的指南的出现远远早于关于如何保持你的认知健康的建议。例如,一个简单的方法就是把所有的需要的信息给像GP之类的医务工作或临床医生。从而为他们和病人讨论如何保护心脏健康时提供另一个参考,即“这也会帮你降低患痴呆症的风险”。我们知道,澳大利亚老年人问卷调查显示担心患痴呆症是他们这个年龄组最关心的健康问题。所以它应该是非常有力的论证。因此能调查GP如何将规定有针对性的体育运动作为老人常规身体检查的一部分的方案,将是非常有力的手段。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任

塔斯马尼亚大学预防认知症MOOC
2018-05-24
(21)吸烟和患认知症的风险-Smoking and Dementia Risk

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM2NTEyOA




Professor Kaarin Anstey

Kaarin Anstey教授


We conducted what we call a “meta-analysis” of the smoking literature. We collated all of the published studies that observed smoking, and then followed people to see whether or not they developed cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or all-cause dementia. And we found that smoking in older adults increased their risk of dementia by 70%. And it was pretty much the same for all types of dementia.

我们做了我们所谓的有关吸烟的文献的荟萃分析。我们收集了所有观察吸烟的已发表的研究论文,然后随访他们看看是否后来发展为认知下降,阿尔茨海默病,血管性认知症或所有原因引起的认知症。然后我们发现老年人吸烟会使他们患认知症的风险增加70%,这在所有类型的认知症中是很高的风险了。


Now, unfortunately, we didn’t have the data from middle age to be able to see if that was true of midlife smokers and what happens if people give up. There is one very interesting study that was conducted in Western Australia, on a group of people who entered a smoking cessation program. They took brain scans of these people at the beginning of the program and at the end, and they also tested their cognition. What they found was that the people who gave up smoking had less brain atrophy than the people who continued to smoke. And they also found that people who gave up smoking had less cognitive decline. So that study is really important in showing there are actually benefits for the brain, even giving up smoking in older age.

现在,不幸的是,我们还没有中年期的数据来观察中年吸烟者是否也这样,还有如果他们戒烟会怎么样。在西澳进行过一个非常有趣的研究,一群人参加了戒烟行动。他们在行动开始时和结束时分别做个脑部扫描,并做认知能力测试。他们发现戒烟的人和继续吸烟的人有较轻的脑萎缩。他们还发现戒烟的人认知退化少。这项研究十分重要,因为它表明即使在老年期戒烟也会对大脑有好处。


Smoking impacts on the brain through multiple pathways. We know that smoking increases the rate of ageing on all of the biomarkers that we can measure. Smoking increases the risk of vascular events, so small strokes and stroke. It increases the rate of brain atrophy. It’s a neurotoxin, and of course it increases the risk of a lot of other diseases such as cancer, which can also ultimately impact on the brain. So it’s a pretty general negative risk factor, a negative behaviour to undertake for brain ageing.

吸烟从多种途径来影响大脑。我们知道吸烟增加了我们能测量的关于衰老速度的所有生物指标。吸烟增加了发生像小中风和中风这样的血管事件的风险。它增加了脑萎缩率。它是神经毒剂,理所当然地增加很多像癌症之类的其它疾病,从而最终影响大脑。所以它是一种常见的负风险因素,是承担大脑衰老的负面行为。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任

塔斯马尼亚大学预防认知症MOOC
2018-05-24
(22)证据状态:银杏-State of the Evidence: Ginkgo Biloba

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODM2NTkxNg




Dr Shannon Klekociuk

Shannon Klekociuk



Ginkgo biloba is an extract taken from the Ginkgo tree, that’s been used in ancient medicines for centuries.

银杏是一种银杏树提取物,它被用于古代医学有几百年了。


Some evidence suggests that Ginkgo may have anti-inflammatory properties, and that it may help increase blood flow to the brain.

一些证据表明银杏可能含有抗炎症物质,还能帮助增加大脑的血流量。


Ginkgo can be taken as an oral supplement or in a tea, and many researchers have looked at whether Ginkgo might be beneficial for a range of different diseases, including those that cause dementia.

银杏可以口服或茶饮,很多科研工作者在研究银杏是否有利于一系列不同的疾病,其中一些疾病会引起认知症。


Some studies have reported potential benefits of Ginkgo to those with Alzheimer’s Disease or Vascular Dementia, in terms of improving their cognition. However, this finding is not consistent across all studies.

一些研究已报道了银杏对阿尔茨海默病和血管性认知症有潜在的好处,可以改善患者的认知能力。但是这一发现在所有的研究中不一致。


In a recent meta-analysis, researchers were unable to identify any clinically meaningful changes in cognition, activities of daily living, quality of life and psychiatric symptoms, that were related to Ginkgo consumption in people with various diseases that cause dementia.

在最近的荟萃分析中,研究者无法确定服用银杏的患有引起认知症的各种疾病的人和他们的认知,日常活动,生活质量和精神症状的任何临床意义的改变有关。


Other studies of healthy, older adults have failed to find any benefit of Ginkgo supplements for reducing incidence of dementia.

其他健康研究没有发现老年人能从银杏补充剂中获得任何减少认知症发生率的好处。


To date, there is no evidence to suggest that Ginkgo can prevent or cure dementia.

迄今为止,尚未有证据表明银杏可以预防或治愈认知症。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任


塔斯马尼亚大学预防认知症MOOC
2018-05-24
(23)证据的状况:椰子油-State of the evidence - Coconut oil?

课程视频:http://player.youku.com/embed/XMjY3ODI5OTE5Mg




Dr Shannon Klekociuk

Shannon Klekociuk博士


There’s been significant coverage of coconut oil as a potential treatment for diseases such as Alzheimer’s. As a consequence, some people are now consuming coconut oil in a bid to reduce their dementia risk. Some researchers have suggested that, because the composition of coconut oil is different than other saturated fats, this might provide the brain with fuel for brain cells and potentially reduce the impact of neurodegeneration. Other researchers have suggested that coconut oil might help with the ratio of good to bad cholesterol and that this might be an avenue by which it works to reduce dementia risk. Unfortunately, these are all theories based on limited animal studies. Unfortunately, we have yet to see any evidence from controlled trials that suggests that coconut oil is a preventative measure for dementia or a treatment for diseases such as Alzheimer’s. But research is under way.

已有大量的椰子油作为潜在的治疗阿尔茨海默病等疾病的方法。因此,一些人现在正在消费椰子油,以减少他们的痴呆风险。一些研究人员建议,由于椰子油的组成不同于其他饱和脂肪,这可能会为大脑提供供脑细胞使用的燃料,并且有可能减轻神经变性的影响。其他研究人员建议,椰子油可能有助于调节好胆固醇与坏胆固醇的比例,有可能通过该途径来减少患认知症的风险。不幸的是,所有这些理论都是基于有限的动物研究。不幸的是,我们还没有看到对照试验的任何证据表明椰子油是认知症的预防措施或治疗阿尔茨海默氏症等疾病的有效方法。但是研究正在进行中。



An important note here is that coconut oil is 90% saturated fat. Introducing this into your diet can have major ramifications for your health, including weight gain, increases in your blood pressure and changes in your cholesterol. Any dietary modifications must be considered in the context of your individual health status and should always be discussed with a medical practitioner.


这里需要注意的是椰子油里90%是饱和脂肪。将它引入你的饮食可能会严重影响你的健康,包括体重增加,血压升高和胆固醇的变化。任何饮食改变必须考虑到您的个人健康状况,并应该始终与医生讨论。


翻译:关爱惟士-未经允许不得转载,违者必追究法律责任


塔斯马尼亚大学预防认知症MOOC
2018-05-24